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This book represents the result of multiyear efforts to provide a reader with an insight into one of the most important areas of railway transport management. Mathematical procedures for the effective and efficient utilization of railway freight cars have been developed by taking into account demand satisfaction and minimization of total costs. Based on an assessment of existing approaches, new models for rail freight car fleet management are presented. The developed models are solved by a variety of optimization methods, in case of exact, stochastic, fuzzy, and fuzzy stochastic parameters. Some models also tackle heterogeneity and partial substitutability of freight cars. Different control schemes are considered, centralized where the complete system is modelled and all the control inputs are computed in one optimization problem, as well as the distributed or decentralized control schemes, where local control inputs are computed using the local measurements and reduced order models of the local dynamics.